Starting off with the basics of HTML

This was the first topic that was taught in class, it gives a rough idea of what the course is all about.

HTML (the Hypertext Markup Language) and CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) are two of the core technologies for building Web pages. HTML provides the structure of the page, CSS the (visual and aural) layout, for a variety of devices. Along with graphics and scripting, HTML and CSS are the basis of building Web pages and Web Applications.


What is HTML?

HTML is the language
for describing the structure of Web
pages. HTML gives authors the means to:

  • Publish online documents with headings,
    text, tables, lists, photos, etc.
  • Retrieve online information via
    hypertext links, at the click of a
  • Design forms for conducting transactions
    with remote services, for use in
    searching for information, making
    reservations, ordering products, etc.
  • Include spread-sheets, video clips,
    sound clips, and other applications
    directly in their documents.

With HTML, authors describe the structure
of pages using markup. The
elements of the language label
pieces of content such as “paragraph,”
list,” “table,” and so on.


What is XHTML?

XHTML is a variant of HTML that uses the
syntax of XML,
the Extensible Markup Language. XHTML has
all the same elements (for paragraphs,
etc.) as the HTML variant, but the syntax
is slightly different. Because XHTML is an
XML application, you can use other XML
tools with it (such as XSLT, a
language for transforming XML content).


What is CSS?

CSS is the
language for describing the presentation of
Web pages, including colors, layout, and
fonts. It allows one to adapt the presentation
to different types of devices, such as
large screens, small screens, or
printers. CSS is independent of HTML and
can be used with any XML-based markup
language. The separation of HTML from CSS
makes it easier to maintain sites, share
style sheets across pages, and tailor pages
to different environments. This is referred
to as the separation of structure (or:
content) from presentation.



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